HOME | PETS FLEA&TICK | HEAD LICE | EQUINE | LAWN CARE | HOME & GARDEN

Back to Main Information Page

FERTILIZERS (TOXIC CHEMICALS)

URGENT READ:  AGENT ORANGE
ARE YOU USING CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS AROUND YOUR GARDEN, TREES AND YARD...READ THESE ARTICLES

PLEASE TAKE A MOMENT AND THINK ABOUT ALL NATURAL PRODUCTS BEFORE USING PRODUCTS THAT YOU HAVE NOT RESEARCHED...

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1554/is_n3_v21/ai_18008939/
http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/24d-captan/24d-ext.html


A circadian clock in the olfactory bulb controls olfactory responsivity.

Granados-Fuentes D, Tseng A, Herzog ED.

Department of Biology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130-4899, USA. dgranado@biology2.wustl.edu

Recently, it has been shown that multiple mammalian cell types express daily rhythms in vitro. Although the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is known to regulate a wide range of circadian behaviors, the role for intrinsic rhythmicity in other tissues is unknown. We tested whether the main olfactory bulb (OB) of mice mediates daily changes in olfaction. We found circadian rhythms in cedar oil-induced c-Fos, a protein marker of cellular excitation, in the mitral and granular layers of the OB and in the piriform cortex (PC). These oscillations persisted in constant darkness with a fourfold change in amplitude and a peak approximately 4 h after the onset of daily locomotor activity. Electrolytic lesions of the SCN abolished circadian locomotor rhythms, but not odor-induced c-Fos rhythms in the OB or PC. Furthermore, removal of the OB abolished spontaneous circadian cycling of c-Fos in the PC, shortened the free-running period of locomotor rhythms, and accelerated re-entrainment after a 6 h advance and slowed re-entrainment after a 6 h delay in the light schedule. OB ablation or odorant altered the amplitude of c-Fos rhythms in the SCN and ablation of one OB abolished c-Fos rhythms in the ipsilateral PC, but not in the contralateral OB and PC. We conclude that the OB comprises a master circadian pacemaker, which enhances olfactory responsivity each night, drives rhythms in the PC, and interacts with the SCN to coordinate other daily behaviors.


The sedative effects and mechanism of action of cedrol inhalation with behavioral pharmacological evaluation.

Kagawa D, Jokura H, Ochiai R, Tokimitsu I, Tsubone H.

Biological Science Laboratories, Kao Corporation, Haga-gun, Tochigi, Japan.
It has been reported that cedarwood oil has sedative effects when inhaled. In this study, we evaluated sedative effects of inhaled cedrol, which is a major component of cedarwood oil. Accumulative spontaneous motor activity was significantly decreased in the cedrol-exposed Wistar rats. Similar results were confirmed in caffeine-treated Wistar rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and ddY mice. In addition, exposure to cedrol prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in Wistar rats. To investigate whether cedrol, which has a very faint aroma, affects the olfactory system, the nasal cavities of Wistar rats were treated with zinc sulfate to reduce olfactory function. Two days later, the pentobarbital-induced sleep time was measured as described above. Compared to intact rats, the sleep prolongation effect was decreased in a lavender-roman chamomile mixed oil exposure positive control group, indicating that olfactory function was impaired. In contrast, prolongation of the sleeping time did not change in the cedrol exposure group. The above findings indicate that cedrol inhalation had marked sedative effects regardless of the animal species or the functional state of the autonomic nerves, suggesting that the mechanism of action is via a pathway other than the olfactory system.